Tiruchirapalli was originally a Chola citadel and later during 1st millennium AD, it was occupied by other south Indian dynasties such as the Pallavas and Pandyas. The Cholas regained control over Tiruchirapalli during the 10th century. Nearby Urayur or old Trichy was the capital of the Early Cholas. Later, after the fall of the CholaEmpire, it came under the direct control of the Madurai Nayak Dynasty who paid tribute to the VijayanagaraEmpire. The Rock Fort temple, the most striking landmark in Tiruchirapalli, was built by the Nayaks 2. The Madurai Nayak rulers changed their capital from Madurai to Tiruchirapalli and back several times. After the fall of nayaks, the town was ruled by Marathas, the French and finally the British ruled over it for about 150 years till the country’s Independence.
Trichy was a place of great importance in the days of the Later Cholas and of the Nayak kings, and during the early days of the British East India Company. The conquest of Tiruchirapalli by the British East India Company marked a major step in the British conquest of India.