Formerly known as Ulwar, the history of Alwar is dated back to 1500 BC when it was a part of the Matsya territory of Viratnagar. Alwar is said to be the oldest kingdom of Rajasthan that came into existence about 3500 years ago. The mythological history of Alwar depicts that the war of Mahabharata has taken place at this place when kauravas embarked on a cattle-rustling mission.
The historical evidences state that this region was founded by the Kachh family of Amber and then it got passed to the Bada Gurjara Rajputs. During the rule of Khanzadas, it became a part of Mewat and Bahadur Nahara of Mewat adapted to Islam. Later the Jats captured the Alwar Fort but in 1782, they were driven out by the Lalawat Narukas under the leadership of Pratap Singh. From 1791 to 1815, Maharao Raja Bakhtawar Singh devoted his sincere efforts for the development of the territory. In the 18th century, Alwar became the first princely state of the country to get into Treaty Relations with East India Company. In 1948, it got merged with the princely states of Bharatpur, Karauli and Dholpur and formed the Matsya union. And on May 15, 1949, it was merged with other states and Ajmer territory to form the present state of Rajasthan.