Horse Guards Parade is an outsized parade ground off Whitehall in central London. It is the place of the yearly ceremonials of Trooping the Color, which celebrates the sovereign’s official birthday, and Beating Retreat. Horse Guards Parade was previously the site of the Palace of Whitehall's tiltyard, where competitions were held in the time of Henry VIII. It was also the vista of annual merriment of the birthday of Queen Elizabeth I. The area has been used for a multiplicity of reviews, processions and other ceremonies since the 17th century. It was once the center of operations of the British Army.